A History of High-Temperature Io Volcanism, February 1995 to May 1997

J. Spencer, J. Stansberry, C. Dumas, D. Vakil, R. Pregler, M. Hicks, and K. Hege

Geophysical Research Letters 24, 2451-2454.

Preprint available in compressed postscript form, including figures from here, or if that doesn't work, try anonymous ftp to ftp.lowell.edu, pub/spencer, and get file iohist97.ps.Z. File size is 260 kbytes

Abstract (submitted version):

Ground-based observations of Io's infrared thermal emission between February 1995 and November 1996, preceding and spanning the time of Galileo's first three Jupiter orbits, show several discrete brightenings for which we can constrain locations, fluxes, and durations. Several of these were brief high-temperature events, with temperatures up to at least 1500 K, of a type not seen before. Loki, Io's most powerful volcano, was relatively active before and probably during Galileo's December 1995 Io flyby, but was faint during most of 1996. Thermal emission was not seen from Ra Patera, site of an active plume in Galileo images. Major 5-micron outbursts were seen on March 2nd and September 27 1995, but about twenty additional outbursts probably went undetected in the same period.
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