It is well known that late-stage formation simulations lead to systems that are too hot.
(see Chambers & Wetherill 1998)
Two possible solutions:
- Damping due to a small amount of gas (Agnor & Ward),
.......... but requires special timing (Kominami & Ida)
- Damping due to a very large number of small background particles.
- Has advantage that it could be because small objects generated during collisions.
- However, this is numerically difficult because it requires a very large N.